Atlantis di Laut Jawa

Please present your open mind
while watching this video. Where was Atlantis? If Plato knows, then he will tell! After thousands of years,
so many of us still search for the answer to
the mystery of Atlantis. From time to time, archaeologists
and historians locate evidence. There have been many locations
proposed for the location of Atlantis. Ever since the first recorded history of
Atlantis, written by the Greek philosopher Plato over 2,300 years ago, debate has raged as to
whether or not Atlantis ever really existed. The existence of Atlantis is supported by
the fact that it is described in great details by Plato. In additions, various conditions,
events and goods unknown to Plato are also described in
detailed and lengthy words. Plato himself asserts
that it is a real story. The first suggested linkage
between Atlantis and Indonesia came from the
leading Theosophist, CW Leadbeater, and the
Lieutenant-Governor of British Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles,
in the 19th century. One of the first researchers
to Atlantis there, in the mid 1990s, is the American
polymath William Lauritzen. The concept of Sundaland Atlantis
was given a huge boost by the publication of the late Brazilian
professor Arysio Nunes dos Santos’ book “Atlantis: The Lost Continent Finally Found”
in 2005. The prehistoric flooding of the
Sundaland region is covered extensively by a paediatrician and geneticist,
Stephen Oppenheimer in 1998. The atlantology of Sundaland
hypothesis is also flanked by the studies of the
geologist and geophysicist, Robert M Schoch together with
Robert Aquinas McNally in 2003. Other proponents of the
Sundaland Atlantis are Zia Abbas, Sunil Prasannan and
Danny Hilman Natawidjaja. The recent knowledge of late glacial and
postglacial sea level rise and land subsidence that occurred almost
precisely at the time described by Plato also becomes strong evidence
to the truth of the story. Plato describes the Atlantis from
point of views of geography, climate, plain layout, city layout,
river and channel hydraulics, produces, social structure, customs,
mythology and its destruction in details including their dimensions
and orientations. These become the subjects of Dhani Irwanto to hypothesize that the lost city of
Atlantis is in Java Sea, as written in a book
“Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea”, published in April 2015. The works include over 5-year research and
analysis of textbooks, papers, internet sites and digital data
collected by the author as well as some site observations. The author has made a serious effort
to match Plato’s narrative with his chosen location for Atlantis,
namely off the southern coast of the island of Kalimantan in the Java Sea. He also uses his professional expertise
to analyse Plato’s many references to the waterways of the Atlantis
capital and its extensive plain. He commendably draws attention
to the remarkable water transportation and irrigation
system in Central Kalimantan. He found a lot more detailed
converging evidence, summarized in a 60-bullet checklist of
agreements between Plato’s Atlantis and Sundaland/Java Sea localization,
as proofs that his theory is the most complete and probable
until today. Atlantis in the Java Sea A scientific effort to match Plato’s
narrative location for Atlantis The story of Atlantis comes to
us from the Socratic dialogues, “Timaeus” and “Critias”, written
by Plato in about 360 BC. There are four people in a meeting
who had met the previous day in which Socrates wants Timaeus,
Hermocrates and Critias to tell him stories about an ideal state. The first is Critias, who talks about his
great grandfather’s meeting with Solon, one of the seven sages, an Athenian
poet and a famous lawgiver. Solon had been to Egypt where priests
talked about the story of Atlantis which was inscribed on a stela
in their temple. Solon, while wrote his poem, enquired into
the meaning and knowledge of the names which had been translated into Egyptian;
when copying them out again translated them into Greek. Thus, the names in the Solon’s story
were borrowed from the Greek myth for the Athenian people to understand. Plato describes the Atlantis, told
as a “real story”, was a powerful and advanced kingdom thatdevastated,
in a night and a day, around 9,600 BC or about 11,600 years ago,
then later sank into the sea. It was protected by the god Poseidon,
who made his son Atlas greater king and namesake of the land Atlantis. As the Atlanteans grew powerful,
their ethics declined. At the end, by way of divine punishment,
its capital city and island were beset by an earthquake and
a flood, and later sank into a sea. Plato asserts that Atlantis was located, “at
a distant point in the Atlantic Ocean”. What we call now by the name of “Atlantic
Ocean” is not the same as that of the ancients. Herodotus, Aristotle, Plato, Strabo
and several other ancient authors are very specific on the fact that
the “Atlantic Ocean” was the whole of the coterminous
“earth-encircling ocean”, which we now arbitrarily divide into
Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. The phrase “at a distant
point in the Atlantic Ocean” implies that Atlantis was
far away in the ocean in what we know today the eastern
Indian Ocean or the Pacific Ocean. Plato is alleged to have
embodied the “Athens” as part of the story of Atlantis to
show their greatest and noblest action. The story is to be an illustration of
how the ideal state conducts itself in warfare against its neighbors,
and has to be read against the background of “The Republic”,
another Plato’s seminal work. The allegation of embodiment is supported
by the expressions as follows. The state of Atlantis is located at a
distant point in the Atlantic Ocean, by itself put the city of the Athens
at a distant location as well since both regions were close together
as told in the story. The Atlantis and the “Athens” were
bordered by the Stelae of Heracles which among others were placed in
a strait called the Strait of Heracles. The city of Atlantis was
within the Strait of Heracles, meaning that the city of the “Athens”
was outside of the strait and the sea. These geographic descriptions are not
compatible to the existence of Atlantis around the Mediterranean. The statements that the “Athens” which
formerly had a vast and fertile land, at the time of Solon had sunk all around and
all that remains were small rocky parts, and only a few trees growing and
consists almost entirely of bare land so that rain water flows only just
on it and then lost to the sea, do not describe the conditions of
the city of Athen at the time of Solon. The statement that the city of the
“Athens” had been established a thousand years before Egypt
is also incompatible. If Plato knows the location of Atlantis,
which was bordering with the “Athens”, he would surely mention the exact
geographical location from his knowledge. A vast southeastern part of the
Asian continental shelf was exposed during the Last Glacial Period,
geologically named as the Sundaland. The last glacial period,
or popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period
within the current Ice Age occurring during the last years of
the Pleistocene geological era, from approximately 110,000
to 12,000 years ago. The Sundaland included the Malay Peninsula
on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of
Kalimantan, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands. The sea level at the time of Atlantis,
about 11,600 years ago, was approximately 60 meters below
the present-day sea level. The Plato’s expression that
“Atlantis was the way to other islands, and from there might pass to the opposite
continent which encompasses the true ocean” precisely points to Sundaland. Traveling further from there, one may
reach some islands like Nusatenggara, Sulawesi, Maluku, Mindanao and Luzon,
and may pass the opposite continent, that was the large “Sahul Continent”
combining Australia, Papua and the land connecting them. “The land of Atlantis is larger
than Libya and Asia Minor” also precisely affirms its size. The expression that “the region
on the side of the ocean was said to be very lofty and precipitous” further
confirms the Sundaland location of Atlantis. The expression “inside a strait and in a
sea encircled by a boundless continent” confirms its capital location. It is said that Atlantis had “sun in the
above”, “benefit of the annual rainfall”, “abundance of water”, “excellently attempered
climate” and “summer and winter seasons”. These are strongly characterize
a tropical climate. “Summer” and “winter” refer to
the “dry” and “wet” seasons, which were non existence
words in the ancient Greece. Atlantis had “full of rich earth”, “abundance
of wood”, “cultivation by true farmers”, “noble nature”, “best soil in the world”,
“abundance of animals”, “coconuts”, “spice products” and “two
harvests each year”. These are the true natural characteristics
of the region in Sundaland. The abundance of food and wood
was needed to sustain more than twenty million population, to
create more than a million soldiers and to build more than two hundred
ships, which was not possible in the other parts of the
world during the era. The other significant thing, Atlantis is
a maritime and riverine civilization. This is also a true
characteristic of the region. Atlantis had abundance of minerals: gold,
silver, copper, tin and “orichalcum”. These are also true natural
characteristics of the region. What is “orichalcum”? “Orichalcum” was unknown to Greek,
being more precious in those days than anything except gold and “flashed”
with the “red light”, or “like fire”. The author identified “orichalcum”
as the zircon as they have the same characteristics
as the descriptions. The zircon products are really
valuable second to gold; they have gemstone quality and
are popular as diamond simulant. Zircon can be processed to
bring out different colors, the red one is known as the “hyacinth”. When finished, its nature is sparkling
like diamond that metals do not possess, which why Plato describes it with the words
“flashed” and “light”, in particular. No known metal shines and flashed
with the red color, or like fire, thus “orichalcum” in not a metal. The expression that it was “dug out of
the earth in many parts of the land” is true as it is abundant in the region
of Kalimantan. Plato describes that there was “a level
plain, smooth and even, descended towards the sea”, “surrounded by mountains celebrated
for their number, size and beauty”, “looked towards the south and
sheltered from the north” and “with wealthy villages of country
folk, rivers, lakes, and meadows”. There was a plain near the capital city
of Atlantis matching the characteristics of the region in southern Kalimantan
in which a part is now submerged under the Java Sea. The plain has slopes mostly less than
1% declining southward to the Java Sea and no visible mound on the whole plain. It is open on the south and sheltered by
the Muller-Schwaner and Meratus Mountains at the north, mostly covered by primary
forest, inhabited by enormous kinds of animals and as the home of
tens of native Dayak tribes. It has high rainfall and warm
temperature over the year, many large rivers and tributaries
so that it is very fertile and rich of food and daily
necessity resources. Plato explains that the plain was
“rectangular and oblong in shape, 3,000 stadia or about 555 kilometers long
and 2,000 stadia or about 370 kilometers wide”. The shape of the plain in the region of
southern Kalimantan and the adjacent Java Sea is rectangular at the south
and oblong at the north, almost exactly 555 kilometers long
and 370 kilometers wide. Concerning the waterways on the
plain, Plato describes that “the perimeter canal was 100
feet or about 30 meters deep, 1 stadium or about 185 meters wide, 10,000
stadia or about 1,850 kilometers long, carried round the whole plain,
received streams from the mountains, winding around the plain, meeting at
the city and let off into the sea.” “The inland canals were straight,
100 feet or about 30 meters wide, 100 stadia or about 18.5 kilometers
intervals, let off into the perimeter canal and as means for transporting
wood and products in ships.” There were waterways on the plain matching
the characteristics of the region. Flooding and sedimentation of
the rivers on a very flat plain over the past 11,600 years
have changed their regimes. Interchanges of flows and orders
among them might also occur. However, in general view their straightness
and elongation are preserved until today, that are parallel to each other
and in the north-south direction. The rivers of Barito,
Kapuas-Murung, Kahayan and Sebangau found in the region are
identified as those canals. They are originated from the
Muller-Schwaner and Meratus mountains. These rivers are about 600 to 800 meters
wide and 8 meters deep in average. Calculating the conveying capacity,
that is the area × the velocity, and assuming the same flow velocity because
of the same gravitational energy slope, the cross section area of the flow,
that is the width × the depth, as described by Plato is about
185 × 30=5,550 square meters. While the area today is
amazingly almost precise, 700 in average × 8=5,600 square meters. The average distance of these rivers
is approximately 20 kilometers, also considered in close agreement to
the figure of 18.5 kilometers by Plato. Considering the windingness of
the rivers encircling the plain, their length is almost precisely the same,
that is 1,850 kilometers. Most of the rivers in southern
Kalimantan are navigable. These rivers and all their tributaries
are a network of transportation system, become very important means for the people
and has been the economic lifeblood because most of their economic activities
are carried out through and in the rivers since the ancient time. Various types of forest, mining
and agricultural products are transported to collection points
or ports through the river network. Plato mentions that “there were transverse
passages cut from one inland canal into another” and “the irrigation
streams tapping from the canals supplied water to the land
in summer (or dry season) but rainfall in the winter (or rainy
season) yielding two crops in a year”. Looking at the maps we can see numerous
existing transverse passages in the region, some of them were built or
rehabilitated in recent times. The passage is known locally as “anjir”,
a canal linking two rivers as part of the transportation network. Today’s practices of tidal swamp
irrigation system in southern Kalimantan is traditionally known as the “anjir system”
where primary canals called “anjir” or “antasan” were constructed
connecting two tidal rivers, also used as navigation purposes. Inland canals were built to irrigate and
drain the fields from and to the “anjir”: secondary canals called “handil” or “tatah”
and tertiary canals called “saka”. During low tides, the canals
drain the toxic water while during high tides fresh water enters
the canals and conveyed to the fields. The system yields two rice crops in a year. All these facts are completely
consistent with the Plato’s expressions. Plato describes that “the capital island
where there was a city with a citadel and rings of water was in a real sea inside a
strait surrounded by a boundless continent.” The boundless continent is the Sundaland
attached to the Asian Continent, and the only sea surrounded by it in
those days was the ancient Java Sea, suggesting that the capital island and
city are located in the Java Sea. The statement that “the island was located
near the plain and all the canals met at the city and drained into the sea”,
suggesting that the island is located south of the plain,
in a place now under the Java Sea. The phrase “for which reason the sea in
those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a reef of mud, or clay,
in the way” confirms the location. Coral reef is scarce in the Mediterranean
so that the Greeks and the Egyptians did not own the term, then Plato wrote
it as “a reef of mud, or clay”. Coral reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear,
sunny and agitated waters, and on hard, underwater surfaces, thus constitute
the ideal conditions for the Java Sea. It is confirmed further by the phrase
“caused by the subsidence of the island”, as the growth of the coral reef
was caused by the sea level rise during the last glacial period. The site is identified by the sailors
as Gosong Gia or Annie Florence Reef, a coral reef described as small
in extent and dries at low water. The city of Atlantis was an island
with a small hill at its center. It had rings of water and a passage
from the sea to the inner ring. They used brass, tin and “orichalcum” to
cover the outer walls of their cities. Poseidon’s temple at the center
had a barbaric appearance and the roof interior was made of ivory. The later docks had triremes
and many naval supplies. Bawean Island off in the Java Sea is a
prototype of the island of Atlantis as it has the same environment, geological
formation and tectonic processes, as well as they are closely situated. Bawean and Atlantis islands are
both located on a geological arc identified by the geologists as Bawean Arc. It is described that “they had springs,
one of cold and another of hot water”. There are several hot and cold
springs in the Bawean Island resulted from the tectonic
activities in the region. The descriptions “the stones were quarried
from the center island and the zones, with white, black and red colors” and
“they hollowed out double docks, having roofs formed out of the
native rock” are also noticeable. The stones are apparently similar to the
igneous rock deposited in the Bawean Island having the acidic white, alkaline
black-grey and ferro-oxide red rocks. This igneous rock is hard and strong
having enough natural strength to stand as roofs of the
hollowed out double docks. What does “The Stelae of
Heracles” really mean? The Egyptian priest told Solon about the
territorial boundary between Atlantis and its opponent as “which are by
you called the Syelae of Heracles” to describe a state entrance or boundary
markers which were situated in a strait. The words “by you” could mean that
the markers were commonly known by the Athenian but not necessarily what
they referred to, or in other words “like the Stelae of Heracles”. As mentioned before, the Atlantean
boundary is not compatible with the Mediterranean region. Moreover, Solon borrows Greek
mythological terms in the story. Classical Greek writers
frequently refer to the stelae without being in anyway specific
regarding their location. The poet Pindar would
appear to have treated the boundary markers as a
metaphor for the limit of established Greek geographical knowledge,
a boundary that was never static. The Stelae were, in earlier times,
identified with the Strait of Sicily, but from the time of
Erastosthenes, circa 250 BC, the metaphor was moved to refer
to the Strait of Gibraltar, reflecting the expansion of
the Greek maritime knowledge. The author hypothesizes that the stelae are
monuments built at places on state entrances or boundary line and could be anywhere
at certain places along the boundary. The monument is locally known as “tugu”,
which has been the tradition in Indonesia until now to mark the boundary
or entrances of a region. The monuments are often decorated with
faces of the god Kala, which are ubiquitous in Java and Bali. It will be discussed later that the god
Kala is analogous with the Greek Heracles. Plato mentions that “the war was said to
have taken place between those who dwelt outside the Stelae of Heracles
and all who dwelt within them.” Possibilities of the bordering markers
resembling the Stelae of Heracles are as shown on this image. The kingdom of Atlantis was
founded by a god named Poseidon, borrowed from the Greek myth. The land was divided into ten
portions given to his children. There was a holy temple dedicated
to Poseidon and his wife, Cleito in the center of the citadel. Poseidon is one of the twelve Olympian deities
of the pantheon in the Greek mythology. His main domain is the ocean, so that
he is called the “God of the Sea”, who rides on sea creatures
that resemble horses. In the earliest works of the
ancient Greek literature, Poseidon is more widely known than Zeus
and was regarded as the supreme god, as mentioned in Linear B tablets from
the pre-Olympians Greek Bronze Age. Homer in the “Iliad” calls him as the
protector of the Hellenic cities. Poseidon is analogous to Nethune
in the Etruscan civilization, around the 1st century BC, which is
also called the “God of the Sea”. In Latin language, the name was transformed
into Neptune in the Roman mythology. Neptune is depicted as a god
who drive sea creatures resembling dragon-tailed horses and
armed with a trident, like Poseidon. This shows the strong
influence of Greek mythology. Plato explains that the ten kings were
said to have the absolute control of the citizens, by the enforcement
of the law regulated by the commands of Poseidon which had handed it down. The Greek Poseidon is analogous to god Baruna
or Waruna in the Nusantara archipelago which given the title of the “Water God”,
the ruler of the seas and oceans. In pre-dharmic mythology, Baruna
was considered as the supreme god against the others and the first
law founder of the world. Baruna is depicted as riding
a sea monster called Makara, in which on the front resembling a
beast, with large teeth and tusks, and on the back in the form of a giant
dragon’s tail, occasionally legged. In Indian mythology, the Makara is described
as an inland creature in the front half, such as deer, crocodile or elephant, and
an aquatic creature in the back half, such as fish or seal, or occasionally
peacock’s tail or flower. Of these things, the author concludes
that Poseidon and Baruna are analogous, evidenced that both of them are
the gods of the seas or oceans, became the first law founders, constituted
the supreme gods in the early time, and drive mythological sea creatures. Besides some other names, Kalimantan
bore the name of Warunapura, means the land of the god Baruna. The old Javanese chronicle “Nagarakretagama”
mentions an ancient state that was within the Majapahit
spheres of influence called “Baruné”, later identified as “Barunai”,
a kingdom of the modern Brunei. European sources further in the 16th
century showed the name of the island as “Burné” by Antonio Pigafetta
or “Bornei” by Duarte Barbosa. Chinese chronicles in the Song and
Ming dynasties showed the name “Boni”. The Dutch and British colonials
named the island as “Borneo”. This is another conclusion
that Kalimantan, or Borneo, which was once the island of the god Baruna,
is analogous to the island of Poseidon, and related to the existence
of Atlantis in the region. Plato mentions that “the war was
said to have taken place between those who dwelt outside the Stelae of
Heracles and all who dwelt within them.” Heracles is a name borrowed
from the Greek mythology. Heracles, or Romanized as Hercules,
is the son of the affair Zeus had with the mortal woman Alcmene. Zeus seduced and made love to Alcmene
after disguising himself as her husband, Amphitryon, the king of Thebes. Zeus swore that the next son
born of the Perseid house should become ruler of Greece, but by
a trick of Zeus’s jealous wife, Hera, another child, the sickly Eurystheus,
was born first and became king. When Heracles grew up, he had
to serve him and also suffer the vengeful persecution of Hera. Besides these Hera induced frenzies,
Heracles was a very brutal character. In spite of those, Heracles is a
divine hero in the Greek mythology. He is the greatest of the Greek heroes,
a paragon of strength and masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans
who claimed to be Heracleidae and a champion of the Olympian
order against chthonic monsters. The Greek Heracles is analogous to god
Kala in the Nusantara archipelago. Kala is a god of the underworld in the
ancient Javanese and Balinese mythology. Kala is also named the
creator of light and earth, as well as the god of destruction
who devours unlucky people. In the mythology, he causes eclipses
by trying to eat the Sun or the Moon. According to the Javanese legend,
Kala is the son of Guru. Guru has a very beautiful wife named Uma. One day Guru, in a fit of uncontrolled
lust, forced himself on Uma. They had sexual intercourse on
top of his Andini, a divine cow. This behavior was ashamed Uma who then
cursed Guru but Guru cursed back Uma so she appeared as a
fearsome and ugly ogre. This fierce form of Uma is also known
in Javanese mythology as Durgha. From this relationship, Kala was
born with the appearance of an ogre. Kala is described as having an
insatiable appetite and being very rude. He was sent by the dewa to Earth to
punish humans for their evil habits. However, Kala was interested only in
devouring humans to satisfy his appetite. Alarmed, the dewa then
recalled Kala from the Earth. He later became ruler of the underworld. The analogy of Kala and Heracles is that
each of them is the son of a supreme god, either Guru or Zeus. Their births were outrageous; Kala was born
from an uncontrolled lust of Guru on Uma while Heracles was from a
seduction of Zeus on Alcmene. They are having insatiable appetites and
being very rude, brutal, and violent in their whole lives. From the ancient until present day,
the faces of Kala are often found at temple entrances, boundary monuments,
welcome monuments, gates, doorway, niches, furniture, wall hangings and
traditional musical instruments; ubiquitous in Java and Bali. Similar figures are also
found at the Dayak houses. As previously discussed, the boundary
monuments decorated with the Kala faces are analogous to the Stelae of Heracles. Apart from those, Zeus,
the father or Heracles, and Guru, the father of Kala,
are also analogous. Both of them were then
appointed to the supreme gods replacing either Poseidon or Baruna. Note also the analogy and phonetic
similarities between the names, Kala and Kleos (from Hera-Kleos) and
Alkaios (the first name of Heracles), Guru and Zeu (the nickname of Zeus),
Uma with Alkmene, and Durgha with Hera. As well as menhirs, stone
tables, and stone statues, Austronesian megalithic culture in
Nusantara features an earth and stone step pyramid structure, referred
to as “punden berundak”. “Punden berundak” is regarded
as one of the characteristics of the original culture of the archipelago. These structures have been found and spread
throughout Nusantara as far as Polynesia. Gunung Padang is the biggest and the
oldest megalithic site in Southeast Asia dated circa 23,000 BC or older. The Sukuh and Cetho temples in Central
Java, where the dates are still debated, show the Austronesian indigenous
elements of step pyramids that somewhat resemble
Mesoamerican pyramids. The huge Borobudur temple is the
largest Buddhist temple in the world, which allegedly built on
the previous step pyramid. The construction of stone pyramids
was based on the native belief that mountains and other high places are
the abode of the spirits of the ancestors, or the most ideal pilgrimage
places to worship them. They feel the need for pilgrimages,
in addition to worship, to ask for help in solving
the everyday life problems. In the development, they gave architectural
decorations on the pyramids, which varies according to
their cultures and beliefs. The shape of the structures then
gradually transformed into temples. As said by Plato, the temple of
Poseidon was built in the center island which was a hill, encircled
by rings of waters. To reach the temple from the
innermost ring of water, steps on the hill slope
were definitely required. This could mean that the temple is featuring
an earth-and-stone step pyramid structure, characterizes
the original culture of Nusantara that is referred to as “punden berundak”. The temple was also the place
to worship their ancestors. Plato describes that in every
five or six years alternately, the kings of Atlantis gathered to
discuss and make arrangements, topped off with plenty
of “bulls” sacrifice. Common people generally could
not distinguish between “bull” and “water buffalo”. Plato does not recognize “water buffalo”
but beast resembling the “bull” because the animals were not found in the
ancient Greece and its surroundings. Water buffalo, also called Asian
buffalo or Asiatic buffalo, is a large bovine native to Southeast
Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. Water buffalo is one of the animals of
greatest economic and religious value used as a sacrificial victim in
Southeast Asia, Indian sub-continent and southern China. In these monsoon regions of Asia, buffalos
are offered in sacrifice to divinities or divine spirits, as the carrier
of dead souls to the world beyond or of zoomorphic symbol of the ancestors. A characteristic of Southeast Asian
houses is the forked horn on the roof, which is considered to be
a symbol of the buffalo, regarded throughout the region as a
link between heaven and this world. Plato mentions that there were
“fruits having a hard rind, affording drinks, meats and ointments”
in Atlantis. Those fruits are no other than coconuts. Coconut has a long and respected history
among cultures in the regions of Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Pacific. DNA analysis reveals that coconuts were
first cultivated in island Southeast Asia, meaning the Philippines, Malaysia and
Indonesia, and perhaps the continent as well. Coconuts were introduced to the Indian
Ocean a couple of thousand years ago by ancient Austronesians
establishing trade routes connecting Southeast Asia to Madagascar
and coastal east Africa. Coconut genetics also preserve a
record of prehistoric trade routes and of the colonization of the Americas. Plato mentions that there were
“fruits which spoil with keeping, with which we console ourselves
after dinner” in Atlantis. This could be a traditional
fermented food eaten as a dessert, locally known as “tape” or “tapai”. “Tape” or “tapai” is indigenous and
popular throughout Southeast Asia. It is a sweet or sour alcoholic paste
and can be used directly as a food or in traditional recipes. “Tapai” can be made from a
variety of carbohydrate sources, but typically from cassava,
white rice or glutinous rice. Fermentation is performed
by a variety of moulds by inoculating a carbohydrate source
with the required microorganisms in a starter culture, locally
known as “ragi”. “Tapai” is also used to make alcoholic
beverages locally known as “arak” or “brem”. Plato mentions that “there were
roots, or herbage, or woods, or essences which distil
from fruit and flower.” This could be the herbal medicine
made from natural materials, locally known as “jamu”, or mixtures of
spices or seasoning, known as “bumbu”. “There was ‘fruit’ which admits of
cultivation, both the dry sort, which is given us for nourishment
and any other which we use for food – we call them all by
the common name ‘grain’.” This could be the paddy or rice, which
is the staple food of the region. “There were chestnuts and the like,
which furnish pleasure and amusement.” This could be coffee, which
grows well in this region. It is described that “there were a great
number of elephants in Atlantis.” Two of the four sub species of Asian elephants
are found in Indonesia and Malaysia. The Sumatran elephant is found
on the island of Sumatra, and the Kalimantan elephant
on the island of Kalimantan. The now extinct Javan elephant
those once inhabited Java are identical to the Kalimantan elephant. Plato also mentions that “there was
provision for all other sorts of animals, both for those which live in lakes and
marshes and rivers, and also for those which live in mountains and on
plains, so there was for the animal which is the largest and
most voracious of all.” Large species such as tiger, rhinoceros,
orangutan, elephant and leopard exist in the region, which are among
almost a thousand mammal species inhabiting this region. Besides those, there are almost
a thousand of bird species and more than a thousand of fish species. These things strengthen the
Sundaland hypothesis of Atlantis. Plato mentioned that the island of
Atlantis was beset by an earthquake and a flood, and later sank into the sea. In some other his explanations, it is implied
that the flood was coming from the sea, so the possibility is a tsunami. Plato did not recognize “tsunami”
so he equated it to “flood”. Earthquakes and tsunamis
are very often correlated. The Banda Arc, a west facing horse-shoe
shaped arc in eastern Indonesia situated west of Papua and in the
easternmost extension of the Sunda subduction zone system, defines
the locus of three converging and colliding major plates, the
Indo-Australian, the Pacific, and the Eurasian Plates, and reveals a
characteristic bowl-shaped geometry. The Banda Sea encircled by the Banda
Arc occupies the main portion of the Banda Sea Plate. Frequent and significant earthquakes,
tsunamis and volcano eruptions took place in one of this most
complex tectonic region on Earth. The largest earthquakes in the
world since 1900 show that the earthquake in Banda Sea on
February 1st, 1938 is among them. Another at least 10 occurrences of
large earthquakes in this region between 17th and 20th
centuries are also known. The world’s deadliest tsunamis
from 1650 BC to 2010 AD show that 3 occurrences of deadliest tsunamis
in the region are among them: in 1674, 1899 and 1992. Mount Tambora eruption in 1815 was the largest
volcanic eruption in recorded history, caused global climate anomalies
that included the phenomenon known as “volcanic winter”. Tsunami are known for their dramatic
run-up heights, can also be excited or amplified in height considerably
in shallow waters and on flat plains, and can oscillate back and
forth within harbors and bays. The recorded run-up of the 1674 AD Banda
Sea tsunami was 80 to 100 meters high. We could speculate that the
destruction of Atlantis was among others caused by
a tsunami in this region. due to the tsunami waves
traveling in shallow water, that was the ancient Java Sea, and
penetrated inland on a very flat plain. The sea water rise was probably also
contributed the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis due to rapid increase of
water burden on the Banda Sea Plate. The ancient Java Sea
was forming a gulf, which could cause the wave became much
higher and prolonged, and destructive. In overall, the author has
collected 60 converging evidence to conclude that Atlantis is matched
to the characteristics of Sundaland, as well as its capital city is most
likely located in the Java Sea. 1. At a distant point in the “Atlantic Ocean”
(ancient Greek understanding) 2. Larger than “Libya” and “Asia” (Asia Minor)
combined (ancient Greek understanding) 3. The way to other islands 4. Might pass to opposite
continent encompasses true ocean 5. The landscape of the whole country,
at the region on the side of the ocean, was very lofty and precipitous 6. A small hill and a vast level plain
near the sea, accessible by ships, vessels and boats from the sea; waterways
on the plain discharge to the sea 7. Beyond bordering monuments, the (ancient)
Greek called the “Stelae of “Heracles” 8. In front of a strait 9. A sea surrounded by a boundless
continent, the other is a real ocean 10. Some islands in the sea 11. Two-season climate – “summer”
(dry) and “winter” (wet) 12. Hot and cold springs available 13. Abundant of water benefit
of the annual rainfall 14. Excellently attempered climate 15. Fertile, best soil for
agriculture and farming 16. Vast diversity of flora and fauna 17. Elephant, horse, “bull” and dolphin 18. Abundant of food to sustain a
civilization and to create an army (about 20 million people) 19. Advanced civilization in the era 20. Earthquakes and “floods” from the sea (tsunami) 21. Sunken ceaselessly (post-glacial sea level rise) 22. The sea at the Atlantis capital “is now”
(Solon’s time) impassable and impenetrable because of a “reef of clay” (coral reef), caused by
“subsidence” of the island (sea level rise) 23. The “Atlantis City”
is now under the sea 24. Two harvests each year, in
“winter” fed by rains and in “summer” 25. Roots, herbage, woods and essences
distilled from “fruit” and flower 26. Cultivated “fruit”, dried, for
nourishment and any other, used for food – common name “grain” 27. “Fruits” having a hard rind,
affording drinks and meats and ointments 28. Chestnuts and the like, which
furnish pleasure and amusement 29. “Fruits” which spoil with
keeping, consoled after dinner 30. Wondrous and in infinite abundance 31. Immediately about and surrounding
the city was a level plain 32. The plain: surrounded by mountains
which descended towards the sea 33. The plain: smooth and even 34. The plain: general shape
was rectangular and oblong 35. The plain: extending in one
direction 3,000 stadia (± 555 km), across the center inland
2,000 stadia (±370 km) 36. The plain: looked towards the
south, sheltered from the north 37. The plain: surrounded by mountains
celebrated their number, size and beauty, there were many wealthy
villages of country folk 38. The plain: rivers, lakes and
meadows – abundant food supply for every animal, wild or tame 39. The plain: plenty of wood of
various sorts – abundant for each and every kind of work 40. The perimeter ditch: incredible in
size, unexpected that they were artificial 41. The perimeter ditch: 100 ft (±30 m)
deep, 1 stadium (±185 m) wide, 10,000 stadia (±1,850 km) long 42. The perimeter ditch: received
streams from the mountains 43. Inland canals were straight,
about 100 ft (±30 m) wide, 100 stadia (±18.5 km) intervals and
let off into the perimeter ditch 44. Transverse passages were cut
from one inland canal into another 45. The inland canals and transverse
passages were means for transporting wood and products in ships 46. Irrigation streams
tapping from the canals 47. Irrigation streams supplied
water to the land in “summer” (dry) but rainfall in the “winter” (rainy)
yielding two crops in a year 48. “Brass”/“bronze” (copper, tin and zinc) 49. Tin 50. “Orichalcum”, more precious
mineral than anything except gold, flashing, red color, abundant resources 51. Gold 52. Silver 53. White, black and red stones 54. Hollowed out rock for double docks 55. “Poseidon” (sea or water god,
law founder, driving sea creatures, supreme god in earlier time) 56. “Heracles” (son of a
supreme god, outrageous birth, has insatiable appetites and being
very rude, brutal and violent) 57. “Bull” (water buffalo) sacrifice 58. Temple or pyramid 59. Maritime activities 60. Transportation by waterways Visit our website at Atlantis in the Java Sea A scientific effort to match Plato’s
narrative location for Atlantis

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About the Author: Emmet Marks

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